Bridge over ocean
1 September 2012 Financial Analysts Journal Volume 68, Issue 5

Leverage Aversion and Portfolio Optimality

  1. Bruce I. Jacobs
  2. Kenneth N. Levy

Portfolio volatility is the only source of risk in mean–variance optimality, but it fails to capture all the risks faced by leveraged portfolios. These risks include the possibility of margin calls and forced liquidations at adverse prices and losses beyond the capital invested. To recognize these risks, the authors incorporated leverage aversion into the optimization process and examined the effects of volatility and leverage aversion on optimal long–short portfolios.

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