Bridge over ocean
1 January 1997 Financial Analysts Journal Volume 53, Issue 1

Going to Extremes: Correcting Simulation Bias in Exotic Option Valuation

  1. David R. Beaglehole
  2. Philip H. Dybvig
  3. Guofu Zhou

Monte Carlo simulation is widely used in practice to value exotic options for which analytical formulas are not available. When valuing those options that depend on extreme values of the underlying asset, convergence of the standard simulation is slow as the time grid is refined, and even a daily simulation interval produces unacceptable errors. This article suggests approximating the extreme value on a subinterval by a random draw from the known theoretical distribution for an extreme of a Brownian bridge on the same interval. This approach provides reliable option values and retains the flexibility of simulations, in that it allows great freedom in choosing a price process for the underlying asset or a joint process for the asset price, its volatility, and other asset prices.

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